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Industrial Explosion Protection ATEX Technologies Overview

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    Industrial Explosion Protection ATEX Technologies Overview
    Issue Time:2019-03-05
    Characteristics of An Explosion

    Commonly begins with the ignition of a fuel that burns very rapidly.

    Produces a large and sudden release of gas

    An explosion need not involve a fire.

    When a container bursts from increased internal pressure, sudden release also called an explosion.

    Explosion Pentagon 

    Combustible Dust (Fuel
    Oxygen (Air
    Ignition Source (electrostatic discharge, electric current arc, glowing ember, hot surface, welding slag, frictional heat or flame)
    Dust Suspension in air exceeding the MEC 
    Confinement (vessel, room, building, ductwork
    Secondary Explosions

    Secondary dust explosions, due to inadequate housekeeping and excessive dust accumulations.

    Secondary dust explosions due to propagation through interconnected ducts, chutes, conveyors, …etc.

    SECONDARY EXPLOSIONS ARE THE MAIN THREAT TO PERSONNEL AND PROPERTY!


    Deflagration Principle 

    Flame Speed 30 ft/s

    30 ft/s (9m/s)

    Pressure Wave 1100 ft/s

    1100 ft/s (335 m/s)

    Industries At Risk 

    Chemical 

    Petrochemical 

    Grain 

    Food 

    Pharmaceutical 

    Aerosol 

    Steel 

    Cement 

    Wood 

    Food Manufacturing Industries 
    Starch Manufacturing and Handling 
    Cereal Plants 
    Breweries 
    Sugar Refining 
    Dairy Products 
    Chocolate Manufacturing 
    Food Flavorings and Additives 
    Dairy 
    Starch Manufacturing, Mixing/Handling 

    Ingredion (National Starch)

    MGP Ingredients
    Cargill
    Grain Processing Corp.
    ADM
    Tate & Lyle

    Firmenich 

    Givaudan Roure

    Cereal Plants 
    Kelloggs
    Kraft/Post Foods
    Ralston Purina
    Quaker Oats
    Chocolate/Candy Mfgs.

    Nestles
    Hersheys
    M&M Mars
    Just Born

    Malt Plants 
    Breweries 
    Anheuser-Busch
    Labatts
    Coors
    Rolling Rock

    Food Additives 

    Solae Company

    International Flavors and Fragrances

    Sugar Western SugarAmerican SugarsImperial SugarsAmerican Crystal Sugars,Dairy Products (powder) Kraft FoodsAC HumcoNestles

    Dairy Farmers of America,Others, including:Cake mix plantsFood thickenersContract mixing/packagingFlour milling
    Grain Handling                     Pharmaceutical Manufacturing 
    ADM                                          Pill Manufacturers
                                                       •Powder Manufacturing/Handling
                                                       •Pill Coaters
    Cargill
    Bunge
    Harvest States
    Central Soya
    The Andersons
    Chemical Manufacturing 
    Plastics - ABS, Phenolic Resins
    Polyethylene
    Acrylics
    Methylcellulose
    Pigments, Dyes
    Epoxies
    Fertilizers, Herbicides, Pesticides
    Ink Toners
    Stearates
    Equipment At Risk :

    Dust Collectors    Reactors 

    Bins, Hoppers, Silos

    Pneumatic Conveying

    Mechanical Conveying

    Cyclones

    Dryers (Spray, Fluid Bed, Rotary) 

    Mixers, Blenders

    Mills, Grinders, Pulverizers 

    Deflagration Pressure vs. Time

    Deflagration Classification:

    ST Classification:ST-1, ST-2, ST-3;     Rst Value:1-200;201-300,301-above
    Example:
    Pittsburgh seam coal has a Kst of 129 bar-m/sec,making it an ST-1 dust        Applicable Codes (USA)

    §NFPA 654  Combustible Particulate Solids
    §NFPA 664  Wood Processing
    §NFPA 61  Agricultural and Food Products
    §NFPA 484  Metal Dusts
    §NFPA 30B   Aerosol Products
    §NFPA 68  Venting of Deflagrations
    §NFPA 69  Explosion Prevention Systems

    §NFPA 652   Fundamentals of Combustible Dust
    Technologies Explosion Protection
    Technologies Explosion Protection
    Deflagration Suppression 
    Deflagration Relief Venting 
    oStandard
    oFlameless 
    Deflagration Isolation 
    oActive
    oPassive 

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